Understanding of Linux Directory Structure

Understanding of Linux Directory Structure

The Linux folder structure is arranged in levels and follows a standard pattern. Knowing this structure helps with moving around, managing the system, and creating software. Here's a summary of important folders in the Linux file system:

  1. / (Root Directory):

    • The root directory is the top-level directory in the file system.

    • All other directories and files are subdirectories or files contained within the root directory.

  2. /bin (Binary):

    • Essential command binaries (programs) are stored here.

    • Common commands like ls, cp, and mv reside in this directory.

  3. /boot (Boot Loader Files):

    • Files required for the system's boot process are stored here.

    • Includes the Linux kernel and boot loader configuration files.

  4. /dev (Devices):

    • Device files for various hardware devices are located here.

    • Example: /dev/sda represents the first hard disk.

  5. /etc (Configuration Files):

    • System-wide configuration files are stored here.

    • Configuration files for software applications and system settings are in this directory.

  6. /home (User Home Directories):

    • Home directories for regular users are located here.

    • Each user has a subdirectory within /home containing their personal files.

  7. /lib (Libraries):

    • Shared libraries needed for system binaries are stored here.

    • Essential libraries for the system and installed software are in this directory.

  8. /media and /mnt (Removable Media and Mount Points):

    • /media typically contains mount points for removable media (e.g., USB drives).

    • /mnt is a common location for manually mounted file systems.

  9. /opt (Optional):

    • Contains optional software packages that are not part of the default system installation.

    • Software installed in this directory is often self-contained.

  10. /proc (Process Information):

    • A virtual file system containing information about system processes.

    • Files and directories in /proc provide information about running processes and kernel parameters.

  11. /root (Root User Home Directory):

    • The home directory for the root user.

    • The root user is the administrative user with superuser privileges.

  12. /sbin (System Binaries):

    • System binaries used for system administration and maintenance.

    • Commands in /sbin are generally intended for system administrators.

  13. /srv (Service Data):

    • Data for services provided by the system is stored here.

    • For example, data related to a web server may be placed in /srv.

  14. /sys (Sysfs File System):

    • A virtual file system that exposes information about the kernel, devices, and other kernel-related information.
  15. /tmp (Temporary):

    • Temporary files are stored here.

    • Files in /tmp are often deleted upon system reboot.

  16. /usr (User Binaries and Data):

    • Contains the majority of user utilities and applications.

    • Subdirectories include /usr/bin, /usr/lib, /usr/share, etc.

  17. /var (Variable):

    • Variable files—files whose content is expected to continually change during normal operation—are stored here.

    • Examples include log files (/var/log), spool files (/var/spool), and temporary files (/var/tmp).

This is a simple summary, and Linux systems might have more folders based on the version and installed programs. Knowing what each folder does is important for managing the system and fixing problems.