Python Encapsulation With Examples

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Python encapsulation is one of the fundamental principles of object-oriented programming that allows you to bundle data and related methods into a single unit called a class. It helps in hiding the internal details of an object and provides a controlled interface for interacting with the object. In Python, encapsulation is achieved through the use of access modifiers and property methods. Here are a few examples that illustrate encapsulation in Python:

Example 1: Private Attributes and Getter/Setter Methods

class Person:
    def __init__(self, name, age):
        self._name = name  # Private attribute
        self._age = age    # Private attribute

    # Getter method for name
    def get_name(self):
        return self._name

    # Setter method for name
    def set_name(self, name):
        self._name = name

    # Getter method for age
    def get_age(self):
        return self._age

    # Setter method for age
    def set_age(self, age):
        if age >= 0:
            self._age = age
            print("Age cannot be negative.")

# Create a Person object
person = Person("Alice", 25)

# Access and modify attributes using getter and setter methods
print(person.get_name())  # Output: Alice
print(person.get_name())  # Output: Bob

print(person.get_age())  # Output: 25
print(person.get_age())  # Output: 30
person.set_age(-5)  # Output: Age cannot be negative.

In this example, the Person class has private attributes _name and _age. To access and modify these attributes, getter and setter methods (get_name(), set_name(), get_age(), set_age()) are defined. The private attributes are denoted by a single underscore conventionally, indicating that they should not be accessed directly from outside the class. Instead, the getter and setter methods provide controlled access to these attributes.

Example 2: Property Decorators

class BankAccount:
    def __init__(self):
        self._balance = 0

    # Getter method for balance using property decorator
    def balance(self):
        return self._balance

    # Setter method for balance using property decorator
    def balance(self, amount):
        if amount >= 0:
            self._balance = amount
            print("Invalid amount.")

# Create a BankAccount object
account = BankAccount()

# Access and modify balance attribute using property methods
print(account.balance)  # Output: 0
account.balance = 100
print(account.balance)  # Output: 100
account.balance = -50  # Output: Invalid amount.

In this example, the BankAccount class uses property decorators to define the getter and setter methods for the balance attribute. The @property decorator marks the method as a getter, and the @balance.setter decorator marks the method as a setter. This allows us to access and modify the balance attribute as if it were a regular attribute, while the getter and setter methods control the access and modification logic.


Encapsulation helps in maintaining data integrity, controlling access to attributes, and providing a clean interface for interacting with objects. By encapsulating data and methods within a class, you can create more robust and maintainable code.

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Lingaraj Senapati

Hey There! I am Lingaraj Senapati, the Founder of My skills are Freelance, Web Developer & Designer, Corporate Trainer, Digital Marketer & Youtuber.

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