Explain the concept of tuple unpacking in Python with examples

Explain the concept of tuple unpacking in Python with examples

Tuple unpacking in Python refers to the process of extracting individual elements from a tuple and assigning them to separate variables in a single statement. This allows you to conveniently access the elements of a tuple without having to access them one by one. Tuple unpacking is particularly useful when you know the structure of the tuple in advance.

Here's an example to illustrate tuple unpacking:

# Define a tuple
person = ('John', 30, 'New York')

# Unpack the tuple into separate variables
name, age, city = person

# Print the unpacked variables
print("Name:", name)
print("Age:", age)
print("City:", city)

Output:

Name: John
Age: 30
City: New York

In this example, we have a tuple person containing three elements: name, age, and city. With tuple unpacking, we directly assign these elements to the variables name, age, and city respectively. This allows us to access each piece of information individually and use them as needed.

Tuple unpacking can also be used with functions that return multiple values, allowing you to easily capture and use those values:

# Function returning a tuple
def get_coordinates():
    return (10, 20)

# Unpack the tuple returned by the function
x, y = get_coordinates()

# Print the unpacked variables
print("x coordinate:", x)
print("y coordinate:", y)

Output:

x coordinate: 10
y coordinate: 20

In this example, the function get_coordinates() returns a tuple containing x and y coordinates. We then unpack this tuple into variables x and y, making it easy to work with the individual coordinates.

Tuple unpacking can also be used with the * operator to capture a variable number of elements:

# Define a tuple with multiple elements
numbers = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

# Unpack the first two elements and capture the rest using *
first, second, *rest = numbers

# Print the unpacked variables
print("First element:", first)
print("Second element:", second)
print("Rest of the elements:", rest)

Output:

First element: 1
Second element: 2
Rest of the elements: [3, 4, 5]

In this example, the *rest syntax captures all remaining elements of the tuple after the first two elements have been unpacked into first and second. This is useful when working with tuples of variable length.

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